Posted in 3/4 SBI3U Biology

SBI3U Blood Typing and Case Study Homework

The Facts About Whole Blood

Canadian Pioneers in Blood Typing


Blood Typing Case Study:

There is another gene that codes for another, different antigen that also occurs on the surface of our RBCs, and technically, that gene also has multiple alleles. However, most people either have or do not have one particular allele. This gene codes for an antigen that is called “Rh factor” because it was first discovered in Rhesus monkeys. People who have instructions to “make d antigen” are referred to as Rh+ (the allele is often symbolized by “+”), while those who have “I don’t know how to make d antigen” instructions are called Rh (the allele can be symbolized by “-”). Since this is a totally separate gene than the ABO blood group, if you’re doing a genetic cross that involves both ABO and Rh, that would be a dihybrid cross.

Ms. Johnston, Ms. Johnson, and Ms. Johnstone all entered the same hospital and gave birth to baby girls on the same day, and all three babies were taken to the nursery to receive care, there. Someone later claimed that the hospital mixed up the babies. As a hospital administrator, it is your job to make sure that each pair of parents has the correct baby, so you order blood typing to be done on all the parents and all the babies. Here are the results:

Person Blood Type
Ms. Johnston A+
Mr. Johnston B+
Ms. Johnson B
Mr. Johnson O+
Ms. Johnstone A+
Mr. Johnstone A
Baby A O+
Baby B AB
Baby C B

Use your knowledge of genetics and Punnett squares to determine which baby belongs to which.

Here’s the solution!


Posted in 6 SBI4U Biology

SBI4U In-text and End of Text Citation

As you do research to find answers to questions in science, you must credit the authors(s) who published the idea first within your response as well as at the end.  You are likely more familiar with citing at the end.  You will know this as making a bibliography.  In research papers the word “References” is used instead of bibliography.

Before becoming a teacher I worked in a research lab at The Lawson Health Research Institute.  The lab I worked in was studying the receptor protein for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) called Flt-1.  In a small study we looked at the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on thyroid cells.  In our article, we had to generate an “Introduction” section which explained to the reader the rationale for our experiments.  We based our hypotheses on the work of other groups and so had to give credit to them. For example:


You will see that several ideas exist in that first paragraph of the background.  Every new idea within a paragraph has to be credited to the authors (researchers) who made those discoveries.  So we credited Denef, Mahmoud and Wollman in this first section.  The et al in the citations means “all the other people who worked with the first author”, but the props go to the first author who was the scientist who did the most work.  My colleague, JiaFang Wang, was the lead investigator of this study. This is why he was the first author.  He was a good guy who had the following picture posted beside his lab bench:


After we published our results, other groups have used what we have found in their articles and so have had to cite our work as well.  So our in-text citation in their papers would be (Wang et al. 1998).  Notice that the in-text citation goes before the period at the end of the sentence that the idea comes from.  The more a scientist gets cited the better they do.  It’s kind of like having the most “likes” on your social media or more YouTube followers on a channel.  As with social media, in Science, this will literally lead to an increase in their reputation and funding.  More recognition and funding means they can keep making important discoveries.

At the end of the article you will see the reference list.  The citations are listed alphabetically by the first author’s last name, not in the order in which the papers were cited in the article itself.  Each scientific journal has its own style of setting up end-of-text citations.  So when you submit your work you have to follow their rules.

We will follow the APA method of citation which uses the same in-text method as shown above.  Click on the APA citation style guide which came from our school library and follow the formats therein when making your list of references.  APA lists them in alphabetical order just like the Journal of Endocrinology does.  There are other online tools you can use to generate citations.