First, thank you all for being awesome lab technicians! Everyone followed proper safety procedures as well as reaction procedures. People knew what the WHMIS symbols meant and how to transfer chemicals carefully and deal with any spills properly.
Complete the Bohr-Rutherford Periodic Table we began according to the following rules:
- The row the element is in determines the number of shells its atoms have.
- Use blue for the filled shells because filled shells are chill shells.
- Use red for the unfilled shells indicate the element could be more stable, not so chill just yet
- Use green dots for electrons and only draw them in the outside shell. This is called the valence shell. Valence shells are where the magic of chemistry happens so we don’t really need to draw electrons for the inner shells.
- Draw in the electrons one at a time in the north, east, south and west positions of the shell. Imagine there is a bunkbed in each position and they fill in one at a time, one after the other and only pair up when needed. This isn’t just a drawing rule, this is actually how electrons fill in to the shells of atoms. It’s a little more complicated but that’s a thing for Grade 12 Chemistry if you take it.
- You will see that for all the atoms in the same column, their outside shells are identical (except for helium, but helium is special). This pattern is why they are in the same chemical family or group and also why they exhibit similar chemical properties.
- After you’ve completed the drawings of the atoms, fill in the names beside the number in the top of each element box, and fill in the element symbol in the nucleus.
- In any atom, the total number of electrons is equal to the total number of protons in the nucleus. A single proton has a charge of +1 and a single electron has a charge of -1. So, what’s the total charge of any atOm?
- Any chemical reaction involves the transfer or sharing of valence electrons between the substances such that the whole system is more chemically stable when the products are formed. This is why we can eat sodium chloride, but pure sodium and pure chlorine are poisonous to us.