Scan through the questions, watch the videos, read the abstract in the link below and do some other research to answer the questions in your notes.
Cancer Warrior Questions
- What is endostatin?
- How does endostatin differ from other cancer drugs?
- Where is Duane’s cancer located?
- What problem was Dr. Folkman originally trying to solve?
- What happened to the tumor cells on the thyroid gland in Folkman’s experiment?
- What does angiogenesis mean?
- Are there blood vessels in the cornea?
- What happens when a tumor is added to a rabbit cornea?
- What would an angiogenesis inhibitor do in the rabbit cornea with a tumor placed in it?
- Was endostatin easy to isolate?
- Why were the scientists looking for an angiogenesis inhibitor in cartilage?
- How did Robert D’Amato arrive at thalidomide as a possible angiogenesis inhibitor?
- What event caused Noel Bouck to totally shift the direction of her research? Why might this be considered Divine Intervention (a nudge from God) as opposed to just a coincidence?
- What significant things did Judah Folkman read about that she discovered?
- What two treatments had Tim first tried for his myeloma?
- How many years of animal studies were needed before human trials of endostatin began?
- How many anti-angiogenic drugs in addition to endostatin were being tested when this documentary came out?
- Why was Duane removed from the clinical trial?
- What happened to him? – you’ll have to do some research beyond the video for this
- According to the article on current studies with endostatin, what three factors doomed naturally produced endostatin as a treatment for cancer?
- What did Chinese scientists do to solve these problems?
- When was this modified form of endostatin approved as a drug?
- What have they concluded about its effectiveness?
- Is there still hope that endostatin can be an effective treatment for cancer?
- microscope parts
- rules for using a microscope
- rules for scientific drawings
- measuring and calculating specimen size – bring a ruler and calculator (not from your cell phone)
- calculating percent error for scientific drawings
- Do a proper scientific drawing of some onion cells under the microscope.
- Find the length and width of your onion cell for both your photo and your scientific drawing.
- By how many percent was your drawing length too big or too small compared to the photo? (you’ll have to figure out how to find this percent error!)
- Although onion cells only have 8 chromosomes, they have more DNA than we do!
Find all the errors in my drawing above. 🤔
The point of scientific drawing is generating a 2D model of what you are observing under the microscope. It is a visual observation of your data. Therefore drawing from memory is not as accurate nor precise as drawing bit by bit from the image under the scope or from a photo you took looking through the ocular lens. You are to draw what you actually see, not what you think you remember.
- Draw the circle which represents the field of view in the upper left part of your page. Your page must be an unlined sheet of paper.
- Only use pencil for everything.
- Label only structures you can confidently identify.
- Put the title of the specimen centered and underlined above the FOV circle.
- Put the magnification in brackets in the bottom-right just outside of the field of view.
- Labels must be vertically aligned to the right of the drawing.
- Label lines are to be totally horizontal but in some cases a vertical drop-down or extend-up line may be used. These are to be avoided where possible.
- Borders between structures are the most important and are to be drawn with clean, solid lines.
- Stippling is to be used when shading in areas that are darker (just tap it in!). No shading or cross-hatching is allowed.
When asked to find a specimen size:
- Find the highest magnification image that totally contains the specimen. In the example below, 100X is too small, 1000X is too big (because the paramecium is bigger than the field of view), but 400X is just right!
- Measure the diameter of the field of view in your image. Be as accurate and precise in your measurements. In this example, it’s 7.2 cm as we measured in class. If it’s an image on paper, not just on your phone, you can draw a line. Or, draw a line using the editing software on your photo app.
- Measure the length or width of your specimen in your image, depending on what you are being asked to find. In the example below it’s the length of a paramecium. It’s 2.9cm here. Draw the line you measured for this as well.
- Set up the magic square formula. Put the quantity and specimen you’re seeking in the top-left spot in the square. Below that put the dFOVmagX symbol. Make a similar set up on the right side of the square as shown below. This is step 1 of your properly formatted calculation.
- Substitute in the known and measured values with their units! This is step 2 and is required in future assignments and tests.
- The step where we see the decimal created from dividing the image values is optional to jot down. I assume you know how to find the final answer with the calculator. It’s here just to see the idea that this paramecium’s length is about 40% of the diameter of the field of view. When you know this value it helps you do a more accurate scientific drawing of a specimen when you are required to do so.
- Step 3 of the required calculation is the final answer after you’ve done your calculations. Since we know our dFOVs were determined using some imprecision, we will round off all final microscopic calculations to the nearest micron (so no decimals in your final answer). Our final answer cannot be more precise than the tools that were used to do the measurements with in the first place.
- Step 4 is a sentence answering the original question that as been asked.
By showing all these steps you are demonstrating your skills and understanding of how you arrived at your final results. In research, this is essential as a scientist must be able to justify how they arrived at their data and conclusions. Prior to publishing any research papers, drafts of lab investigations are sent to fellow scientists for peer review. If flaws are found or key details are missing, the paper must be revised to a sufficient degree or else the work is not published. Scientists are given grant money based on their publications, which is where the saying “publish or perish” comes from.
In our class, when asked to measure and determine the size of microscopic specimens, you are to show your measurements and data analysis and final answer as shown in the format below.