Posted in P3 SBI3C Biology

SBI3C Exam Review Topics

  • the cell – plant, animal –> organelles and their functions
  • the cell theory
  • the microscope parts
  • measuring and calculating specimen sizes under the microscope
  • carbohydrates
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • inheritance: genetic terminology
  • how to make and use Punnett squares
  • dominance
  • incomplete dominance
  • codominance
  • from DNA to chromosomes – forms of chromosomes
  • cell cycle
  • mitosis in detail
  • cancer – what it is, how it spreads and how it’s treated
  • meiosis and human development
  • bacterial cell structures, shapes and colony structures
  • binary fission calculations
  • discovery of antibiotics
  • antibiotic resistance
  • viruses – their structure and replication methods
  • circulatory system
  • respiratory system
  • digestive system

Posted in P1 SBI3U Biology

SBI3U Exam Review Topics

  • microscope parts
  • proper use of microscopes
  • magnifications and diameters of fields of view
  • measuring and calculating specimen sizes
  • forms of chromosomes – DNA, chromatin, chromatids, dyads, tetrads
  • cell cycle
  • mitosis in detail
  • meiosis in detail
  • meiosis in males versus females
  • Mendel and his pea experiments
  • Punnett Squares
  • Pedigrees
  • Test Cross
  • dihybrid cross – FOIL
  • Forms of inheritance – dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles (ABO blood typing), sex-linked inheritance
  • Law of Segregation & Law of Independent Assortment
  • Charles Darwin – evolution by natural selection
  • gene expression – switches
  • evolution based on embryology
  • forms of natural selection – stabilizing, directional, disruptive, sexual
  • genetic drift, bottleneck, founder effect
  • homologous, analogous and vestigial features
  • convergent and divergent evolution
  • allopatric and sympatric speciation and the mechanisms of isolation that correspond to these
  • taxonomy – Dear King Philip Came Over From Germany Smiling
  • binomial nomenclature – giving species their names
  • phylogeny – clades
  • dichotomous keys – how to use them & how to make them
  • eubacteria & archaea kingdoms
  • viruses & protist kingdoms
  • fungi & plant kingdoms
  • animal kingdom
  • Circulatory system
  • Respiratory system
  • Digestive system

Exam Format:

Multiple choice, diagram labeling and drawing, problem-solving (bring your calculator and ruler!).

Posted in P2 SBI4U Biology

SBI4U Exam Review Topics

  • atomic Lewis structures of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen atoms
  • Electronegativity and bonding – ionic, polar covalent and non-polar covalent
  • Functional Groups
  • VSEPR Theory
  • Molecular Polarity
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • anabolic & catabolic reactions
  • carbohydrates
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • nucleic acids
  • cellular transport: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis (tonics), active transport
  • homeostasis – components and positive and negative feedback loops
  • thermoregulation
  • kidney structure and function
  • the brain – structures and their functions
  • the nervous system – CNS vs PNS
  • action potential
  • chemical synapse
  • how specific drugs work in our brain (know the ones from Mouse Party, other than marijuana)
  • DNA replication
  • gel electrophoresis
  • central dogma in general
  • mutations – harmful, maybe harmful, harmless?
  • PCR
  • gel electrophoresis
  • plasmids and their components
  • restriction endonucleases
  • how to make a recombinant plasmid
  • transcription
  • mRNA processing
  • splicing
  • translation
  • Sanger sequencing
  • cycle sequencing
  • mitochondrial structure
  • cellular respiration – overall chemical reaction
  • glycolysis
  • pyruvate oxidation
  • Krebs cycle
  • electron transport chain in the mitochondrion
  • substrate level phosphorylation vs oxidative phosphorylation
  • photosynthesis general reaction
  • chloroplast structure
  • light reactions – electron transport chain in the chloroplast
  • Calvin cycle (aka dark reactions)

Format:  multiple choice, diagrams, problem-solving/analysis, explanations

Posted in P2 SBI4U Biology

SBI4U Molecular Genetics Unit Test Wednesday June 12

This test will be made of multiple choice, a diagram section, and problem-solving/analysis questions but not a long answer section.

  • replication – p. 222 in your textbook as well as the notes we took
  • PCR – purpose, ingredients, how it works (go through three cycles)
  • central dogma in general – DNA to RNA to Protein
  • mutations – types and how to analyze if they are harmful, definitely harmful, or maybe harmful
  • gel electrophoresis – how this works in general and how to analyze a gel
  • recombinant DNA techniques – plasmids (what are the necessary components), genes of interest, restriction endonucleases; basically, what are the ingredients and steps required to make a recombinant plasmid
  • transcription in detail
  • mRNA processing – in detail – 5’methyl-G capping and 3′ Poly A tailing processes
  • splicing – removal of introns and the pasting of exons
  • translation – from mRNA to proteins in detail
  • Sanger vs cycle sequencing – what are the ingredients, how do these techniques work, how to read the data they output