Posted in P1 SNC2D Science

1 SNC2D Chemistry Test 2 Tuesday October 23

Topics

  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • State symbols
  • Chemical Equations
  • Particle types of substances in reactions (atoms, ions, molecules)
  • Reaction Types
  • Acids, Bases & Indicators

Format

  • multiple choice
  • equations problem solving like our practice quiz

Practice Questions

  1. For each skeleton equation below:
    a) Identify the reaction type: synthesis, decomposition, combustion, single displacement, double displacement, neutralization.  Note, if they fit into two categories then include both.
    b) Balance the equation.
    c) Write the word equation above the skeleton equation.
    d) Above the word equation, identify the kind of particles each substance is made of.  Choose from: atoms, ions or molecules.NOTE:  Don’t worry about naming C12H22O11, it’s a carbohydrate, just call it that.  Also, C4H12 should be C4H10.  This one is called butane, the fuel in lighters.  
    practice rxs
  2. For each of the following:
    a) Identify the reaction type.
    b) Write the word equation.
    c) Write the balanced chemical equation with state symbols.

    i) A piece of nickel is placed into a solution of silver nitrate. A chemical reaction occurs and the mixture is filtered.  Silver metal remains caught in the filter while the solution of nickel (II) nitrate passes through into the flask below.

    ii) A sample of mercury (II) nitrate crystals are heated.  Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen gasses are formed and pure liquid mercury is left behind.

    iii) Crystals of tetraphosphorous decoxide are dropped into pure water.  They react to form a solution of phosphoric acid.

    iv) A solution of barium hydroxide is mixed with a solution of iron (III) sulfate.  The mixture is filtered.  Barium sulfate is insoluble so crystals of it are trapped in the filter while the solution of iron (III) hydroxide passes into the flask below.

    v) Methane is burned in oxygen from a Bunsen burner.  It’s a perfect combustion resulting in the production of carbon dioxide gas and water vapour.

    vi) A solution of aluminum hydroxide is mixed with sulfuric acid.  Heat is produced resulting in new water molecules floating around in the solution of aluminum sulfate.

    vii) Iron (II) chloride crystals are reacted with chlorine gas which turns them into crystals of iron (III) chloride.

Posted in P4 SNC2D Science

4 SNC2D Practice Experiment Lab Report – Homework

Type up or neatly hand write up the following parts of the lab report as seen below.  Include Question, Hypothesis, Materials & Methods (Good copy), Results (good copy).  We will do the discussion tomorrow.  If you hand write it, you’ll need someone to print your pics and paste them into your report tomorrow.

Question:  

What is the identity of the products of the reaction between a solution of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate and what are their qualitative physical properties?

Hypothesis: 

What are your predictions based on what we’ve learned and experienced about the different reaction types?

Materials & Methods

Write a list of step-by-step instructions including proper terms for each piece of equipment and substances used.

Results

Rough work:

  • Record what you know and observe about the reactants before carrying out the reaction.
  • Take a picture of each of the reactants to go with your observations.
  • Take a video or a set of pics of the reaction happening.
  • Describe what happened when the substances are mixed and what the properties of the products are after you separate them in point form

Good copy:

Organize the pictures with the heading Figure #: Identify what’s in the picture(s) and layout these on a page in an organized fashion.  Following this, write a paragraph of what was done and what was seen.  Basically the paragraph is a written description of what the pictures are.  Think, what you see is what you read and what you read is what you see.

Discussion

Write a well written and formal (don’t use “I” or “we”) paragraph that addresses the following things:

  • Did the results match your hypothesis?
  • Did any results surprise you? You could word it like:  The presence of ……………..was a surprising outcome based on……………… . Further investigation into why this is so is required.
  • Do some research to find out the identity of each product and refer to your source in your findings.
  • Based on your research identify which one was the precipitate and explain why  it formed a precipitate instead of staying in solution like the other product.
  • Write the word and balanced chemical equation including state symbols which you will now know from doing your research.
  • Why was it safer to use more potassium iodide than lead (II) nitrate in this reaction?
  • Although nothing may come to you, in real research, the end point of any experiment is the jump point to the next set of questions to design experiments to answer.  If you can think of any, suggest them at the end of your discussion.

As in real science, before any scientists’ work is published, the report goes into what is known as peer review.  This is where other scientists review the report and find holes in in it, or errors of any sort that need to be addressed or explained or fixed prior to the report being submitted for publication.  To this end, you will be reviewing the reports of your colleagues.  At least three people must review your report and find errors that need correction.

Post your good copy results in the VLE folder under Assessment –> Assignments –> Practice Experiment Lab Report.  And if you can print one hard copy, but if you can’t print it, a electronic version will suffice.

In case you didn’t get pics or weren’t here you can use these:

Figure 1: 3 mL of potassium iodide solution

 

 

Figure 2: A bottle of lead (II) nitrate solution

 

 

 

Figure 3: The reaction mixture.

 

 

 

Figure 4: The first product.

 

 

 

Figure 5: The second product.

Posted in P1 SNC2D Science

1 SNC2D Practice Experiment – Homework

Type up or neatly hand write up the following parts of the lab report as seen below.  Include Question, Hypothesis, Materials & Methods (Good copy), Results (good copy).  We will do the discussion tomorrow.  If you hand write it, you’ll need someone to print your pics and paste them into your report tomorrow.

Question:  

What is the identity of the products of the reaction between a solution of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate and what are their qualitative physical properties?

Hypothesis: 

What are your predictions based on what we’ve learned and experienced about the different reaction types?

Materials & Methods

Write a list of step-by-step instructions including proper terms for each piece of equipment and substances used.  Always write these as if you are giving instructions for someone else to do.

Results

Always write in the past tense.  For example, “We observed the formation of a……….”

Rough work:

  • Record what you know and observe about the reactants before carrying out the reaction.
  • Take a picture of each of the reactants to go with your observations.
  • Take a video or a set of pics of the reaction happening.
  • Describe what happened when the substances are mixed and what the properties of the products are after you separate them in point form

Good copy:

Organize the pictures with the heading Figure #: Identify what’s in the picture(s) and layout these on a page in an organized fashion.  Following this, write a paragraph of what was done and what was seen.  Basically the paragraph is a written description of what the pictures are.  Think, what you see is what you read and what you read is what you see.

Discussion

Write a well written and formal (don’t use “I” or “we”) paragraph that addresses the following things:

  • Did the results match your hypothesis?
  • Did any results surprise you? You could word it like:  The presence of ……………..was a surprising outcome based on……………… . Further investigation into why this is so is required.
  • Do some research to find out the identity of each product and refer to your source in your findings.
  • Based on your research identify which one was the precipitate and explain why  it formed a precipitate instead of staying in solution like the other product.
  • Write the word and balanced chemical equation including state symbols which you will now know from doing your research.
  • Why was it safer to use more potassium iodide than lead (II) nitrate in this reaction?
  • Although nothing may come to you, in real research, the end point of any experiment is the jump point to the next set of questions to design experiments to answer.  If you can think of any, suggest them at the end of your discussion.

As in real science, before any scientists’ work is published, the report goes into what is known as peer review.  This is where other scientists review the report and find holes in in it, or errors of any sort that need to be addressed or explained or fixed prior to the report being submitted for publication.  To this end, you will be reviewing the reports of your colleagues.  At least three people must review your report and find errors that need correction.

Post your good copy results in the VLE folder under Assessment –> Assignments –> Practice Experiment Lab Report.  And if you can print one hard copy, but if you can’t print it, a electronic version will suffice.

In case you didn’t get pics or weren’t here you can use these:

Figure 1: 3 mL of potassium iodide solution

Figure 2: A bottle of lead (II) nitrate solution

Figure 3: The reaction mixture.

Figure 4: The first product.

Figure 5: The second product.

Posted in P6 SBI3U Biology

6 SBI3U In-text and End of Text Citation

As you do research to find answers to questions in science, you must credit the authors(s) who published the idea first within your response as well as at the end.  You are likely more familiar with citing at the end.  You will know this as making a bibliography.  In research papers the word “References” is used instead of bibliography.

Before becoming a teacher I worked in a research lab at The Lawson Health Research Institute.  The lab I worked in was studying the receptor protein for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) called Flt-1.  In a small study we looked at the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on thyroid cells.  In our article, we had to generate an “Introduction” section which explained to the reader the rationale for our experiments.  We based our hypotheses on the work of other groups and so had to give credit to them. For example:

article

You will see that several ideas exist in that first paragraph of the background.  Every new idea within a paragraph has to be credited to the authors (researchers) who made those discoveries.  So we credited Denef, Mahmoud and Wollman in this first section.  The et al in the citations means “all the other people who worked with the first author”, but the props go to the first author who was the scientist who did the most work.  My colleague, JiaFang Wang, was the lead investigator of this study. This is why he was the first author.  He was a good guy who had the following picture posted beside his lab bench:

never_give_up

After we published our results, other groups have used what we have found in their articles and so have had to cite our work as well.  So our in-text citation in their papers would be (Wang et al. 1998).  Notice that the in-text citation goes before the period at the end of the sentence that the idea comes from.  The more a scientist gets cited the better they do.  It’s kind of like having the most “likes” on your social media or more YouTube followers on a channel.  As with social media, in Science, this will literally lead to an increase in their reputation and funding.  More recognition and funding means they can keep making important discoveries.

At the end of the article you will see the reference list.  The citations are listed alphabetically by the first author’s last name, not in the order in which the papers were cited in the article itself.  Each scientific journal has its own style of setting up end-of-text citations.  So when you submit your work you have to follow their rules.

We will follow the APA method of citation which uses the same in-text method as shown above.  Click on the APA citation style guide which came from our school library and follow the formats therein when making your list of references.  APA lists them in alphabetical order just like the Journal of Endocrinology does.  There are other online tools you can use to generate citations.

Posted in P6 SBI3U Biology

SBI3U Gametogenesis and Conception Assignment – Due Thursday October 25

Instructions – Complete the spermatogenesis, oogenesis and conception handouts using the following instructions.

The analysis questions can be submitted on the VLE under the Assessment –> Assignments section.  Or they can be printed off and handed in with the other work.

Gametogenesis & Conception Data

  1. Use two different colours for the chromosomes from dad’s parents and complete the spermatogenesis diagram. For example, dark blue for the chromosomes from dad’s dad, light blue for the chromosomes from dad’s mom.
  2. Use two new colours for the chromosomes from mom’s parents.  For example, red for the chromosomes from mom’s dad and pink for the chromosomes from mom’s mom.
  3. Make sure each chromatid has a least one cross-over.
  4. Make sure that the cross-overs for spermatogenesis are different than oogenesis.
  5. Randomly choose one of the four sperm that were generated to create the zygote on the conception sheet.  Draw the chromosomes as they would be right after the sperm and egg meet.
  6. Below every cell in all of your diagrams identify it as diploid or haploid.
  7. Within every cell in all of your diagrams, identify the form the chromosomes are in.

Analysis

  1. Whose DNA did the zygote get most of from:
    a) mom (i.e. mom’s mom or mom’s dad)? b) dad (i.e. dad’s mom or dad’s dad)?  Justify your answer based on (means refer to) the chromosomes within the zygote.
  2. Based on your drawings and knowledge from class, what is the overall purpose of meiosis I? (i.e. refer to your drawings and knowledge in your answer)
  3. Based on your drawings and knowledge from class, what is the overall purpose of meiosis II? (i.e. refer to your drawings and knowledge in your answer).
  4. In terms of chromosome distribution (independent assortment), we tossed coins to figure out where chromosomes would go. How many total coin tosses would there be in meiosis of a human cell?  Explain how you arrived at this number.
  5. Explain how it is impossible (other than for identical twins) for one zygote to be genetically identical to another.
  6. i) Where and when does meiosis happen in a) human males?  b) human females?
    ii) Why is the number of gametes that come from a single primary oocyte different than the number of gametes that come from a single primary spermatocyte?


Application

  1. Other than disease protection, why does meiosis and sexual reproduction give a species an advantage over asexual reproduction?   Give an example to back up your answer.
  2. Using text and diagrams, explain how non-disjunction can happen and identify and describe a condition that non-disjunction can lead to.
    Use your textbook for this one – but you will have to cite it along with your other valid sources.
  3. What does the Catholic Church teach about the value of the zygote?  How does this teaching relate to the use of human embryonic stem cells?  What is a source of stem cells that could be used that would be acceptable to our religion?  (Note:  you will need to refer to the Catechism of the Catholic Church or the YOUCAT and other valid sources to answer these questions.)

Cite your sources using APA referencing.  Both in-text and end-of-text are required for information acquired outside of class.

If you do not cite your sources, or you copy off of someone else’s wording, this constitutes plagiarism.  A mark of zero will be assigned as a result.

Wikis and discussion groups like Yahoo answers are NOT valid sources of information.  It is vital that you cite valid sources.